Gilles Kepel is a political scientist whose insightful commentary has made him one of France’s and Europe’s leading experts on Islam and the Middle East. Chair of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), in his work he has mapped the ideological contours of radical Islamist ideology. He has shown how the small and educated avant-garde of modern Islamic terrorism has spread its doctrines at the heart of post-industrial societies, using both cultural disenchantment with the individualistic and secular values of Western modernity and the technological fruits of that modernity to spread its fundamentalist ideas. He has also shown how the fundamentalist reaction against the Enlightenment values of the modern West is not confined to Islam, but detectable too in contemporary Christianity and Judaism. These themes are at the heart of his important Polity books The Revenge of God and Allah in the West.