Carol Gilligan is an American feminist psychologist who has transformed the way we think about women and men and the relations between them. Currently a professor at New York University, in 1982 she published her ground-breaking 1982 book In a Different Voice, which was a hugely significant milestone in gender studies, becoming one of the most widely read and influential works ever written on gender and human development. Its argument that psychology has systematically ignored and marginalized female experience had repercussions far beyond psychology, contributing as it did to the development of ‘difference feminism’ and the ‘ethics of care’. Her more recent work has focused on the implications of human relationships and gender for citizenship, emphasizing that a sensitive appreciation of gender development can open up a more humane way of thinking about personal and political relationships. This is a perspective developed in her Polity book Joining the Resistance, and also explored in Why Does Patriarchy Persist? (with Naomi Snider).